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What is a Molten Salt Reactor?
Salt Reactor or "MSR"
is a liquid-fueled reactors that can be used for production of electricity,
actinide burning, production of hydrogen, and the production of "fissile
Electricity production and waste "burn-down" are expected to be the primary missions for the Molten Salt Reactor.
Fissile, fertile, and fission isotopes are dissolved in a high-temperature molten fluoride salt with a very high boiling point (1,400 C) that is both the reactor fuel and the coolant. The near-atmospheric-pressure molten fuel salt flows through the reactor core.
Salt Reactor designs have
a graphite core that results in a thermal to epithermal neutron spectrum.
In the core of the Molten Salt Reactor is where fission occurs - within the flowing molten salt which is the "fuel" and is heated to approximately 700° C., after which it flows into a primary heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to a secondary molten salt coolant. The fuel salt then flows back to the reactor core. The clean salt in the secondary heat transport system transfers the heat from the primary heat exchanger to a high-temperature Brayton cycle which converts the heat energy into electricity. The Brayton cycle may use either nitrogen or helium as a working gas.
The picture above from the Department of Energy (www.DOE.gov)
"Tokamak" controlled fusion reactors are safe with most
using a 50-50 mix of deuterium and tritium mix.
Yes Nukes! For carbon free energy and pollution free power!
What is "Controlled Fusion?"
"Controlled Fusion," as opposed to uncontrolled fusion, which vaporizes cities and people, is that controlled fusion uses magnetic fields to confine a high-temperature plasma of deuterium and tritium.
One way to do this is to use a
"tokamak" - which is a Russian word for a device that
resembles a doughnut-shaped vessel wherein a strong, helical magnetic field guides the charged particles around it.
The nuclei in the plasma undergo fusion reactions that convert some of their rest mass into energy - in the same way that energy is produced by the
sun. In order to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion experienced by the two nuclei, the plasma temperature,
(T), must be extremely high - typically about 10 keV, which corresponds to
about 108 K. However, the density of the plasma, n, can be relatively low at about 1020 m-3. The resulting pressure in the plasma is therefore only about one atmosphere.
Long as they are Molten Salt Reactors
Fueled with Thorium!
"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy" sm
Zero Energy sm
"The Future of Energy is Net Zero Energy!" sm
Think Beyond Solar sm
Architecture * Battery Energy Storage * Bidirectional Inverters * Bidirectional Power
Energy Efficiency Measures * Energy Master Planning * Energy Storage * Micro-Grids
Net Zero Energy * Net Zero Energy Retrofit * Solar Cogeneration * Solar Trigeneration
What is "Net Zero Energy?"
Net Zero Energy - when applied to a home or commercial building, simply means that they generate as much power and energy as they consume, when measured on an annual basis.
The U.S. Army now has a Net Zero Energy initiative to help reduce/eliminate America's use of foreign oil - particularly oil from muslim/middle-east countries - which saves the lives of our brave soldiers in the military.
At the heart of a Net Zero Energy Building sm is the idea that any building can meet its energy requirements from low-cost, locally available, nonpolluting, renewable sources, like Solar Trigenerationsm Energy Systems. Solar Trigenerationsm Energy Systems are the idea whose time has come, to make Net Zero Energy Building sm commonplace.
Solar Trigenerationsm Energy Systems Provide All of the Cooling, Heating & Power, for Any Size Building, with only the Energy of the Sun. Solar Trigenerationsm Energy Systems Provide Simultaneous Cooling, Heating & Power whether it is 12 Noon, or 12 Midnight, and WITHOUT having to rely on the electric grid!
The Department of Energy developed the Commercial Building Initiative (CBI) and is pursuing the goal of marketable Net Zero Energy Building through research and partnerships.
The DOE's CBI has developed tools and resources to help the commercial buildings industry improve energy efficiency at various levels of energy savings.
of Energy's "Net Zero Energy" 2025 Goal
Marketable Net Zero Energy Commercial Buildings
Why "Net Zero Energy Matters
Americans spend more than $400 billion every year for electricity and natural gas for our homes and commercial buildings, consuming more than 70% of all the electricity used in the United States, which is about 40% of our nation's total energy bill. This also contributes almost 40% of the nation's carbon dioxide emissions.
By standardizing on Net Zero Energy and upgrading existing commercial buildings to Net Zero Energy, the USA increases energy efficiency and reduces the purchases of energy from all sources, both foreign and domestic.
Net Zero Energy Protects your Financial Health
The average family spends $2,200 each year on the power and energy needed for their homes. A Net Zero Energy home can reduce this amount by 80% to 100%.
Net Zero Energy
Protects your Health and the Environment
Did you know that buildings (homes and commercial buildings) are responsible for:
almost 40% of the our country's greenhouse gas emissions
18% of the nitrogen oxides (emissions)
55% of the sulfur dioxide emissions.
These harmful emissions are generated from the combustion of fossil fuels, which cause acid rain, haze, smog and cause breathing/respiratory problems for thousands of people. By increasing the energy efficiency of our country's homes and commercial buildings, we reduce these harmful emissions while reducing our monthly utility and transportation expenses. Imagine, never again receiving a monthly bill from your electric power or natural gas utility company! Having a Net Zero Energy home or business can do that, or provide the option to "cut the cord" to the electric company in the future.
Every new Net Zero Energy home or commercial building helps our country reduce (energy-related) greenhouse gas emissions. There is a goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels of 17% by 2020.
Net Zero Energy
Protects America's Economy and Leads to Energy Independence
The USA is still dependent on foreign oil. Each day, the USA shifts the wealth of Americans, to foreign countries and foreign jobs. With oil at $100/bbl, Americans send about $1.3 billion for the foreign oil we buy which adds up to almost $1/2 trillion every year. And that's also costing America thousands of jobs. Net Zero Energy will help America become energy independent, create thousands of jobs in the USA and reduce our dependence on foreign oil from insecure sources and from countries that do not agree with our country's leadership or policies.
Building (and upgrading) homes and commercial buildings to Net Zero Energy with less reduces the problems relating to an old, inefficient electric power grid. Increased Net Zero Energy homes and commercial buildings also saves the need for building new central power plants running on fossil fuels, that are still highly inefficient at no more than 50% efficient.
Net Zero Energy Buildings Are
The Next Frontier
Revenue from net-zero energy buildings will grow rapidly over the next 20 years, reaching almost $690 billion
by 2020 and nearly $1.3 trillion by 2035, projects Pike Research. That's a compound annual growth rate of 43%.
Revenues From Net Zero Energy Buildings
to Reach $1.3 Trillion by 2035
Net Zero Energy Buildings Are Coming,
What About The Buildings Already Standing?
What is Monocrystalline Silicon?
to the Renewable
Energy Institute, Monocrystalline Silicon is made from very pure
Monocrystalline Silicon has a single and continuous crystal lattice structure with practically zero defects or impurities.
One of the many reasons Monocrystalline Silicon is superior to other types of silicon cells are the significantly high efficiencies – which are typically around 15%, compared to other silicon cells.
Because the manufacturing process required producing Monocrystalline Silicon is more involved and detailed than other types, this results in slightly higher costs for Monocrystalline Silicon than other silicon technologies.
Decentralized Energy is the Best Way to Generate Clean and Green Energy!
How we make and distribute electricity is changing!
The electric power generation, transmission and distribution system (the electric "grid") is changing and evolving from the electric grid of the 19th and 20th centuries, which was inefficient, highly-polluting, very expensive and “dumb.”
"old" way of generating and distributing energy resembles this slide:
Some customers will choose to dis-connect from the grid entirely. (Electric grid represented by the small light blue circles in the slide below.)
Typical "central" power plants and the electric utility companies that own them will either be shut-down, closed or go out of business due to one or more of the following: failed business model, inordinate expenses related to central power plants that are inefficient, excessive pollution/emissions, high costs, continued reliance on the use of fossil fuels to generate energy, and the failure to provide efficient, carbon free energy and pollution free power.
Carbon free energy and pollution free power reduces our dependence on foreign oil and makes us Energy Independent while reducing and eliminating Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
The market for
PV" also referred to as
is projected to double from
$30 billion/year in 2008 to $60 billion/year in 2013:
"Concentrated Solar Power - The Technology That Will
Save Humanity." ~ Dr. Joseph Romm
hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of billions of dollars every year for
oil, much of it from the Middle East, is just about the single stupidest
thing that modern society could possibly do. It’s very difficult to
think of anything more idiotic than that.”
~ R. James Woolsey, Jr., former Director of the CIA
Price of Addiction|
to Foreign Oil
According to R. James Woolsey, for Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, “The basic insight is to realize that global warming, the geopolitics of oil, and warfare in the Persian Gulf are not separate problems — they are aspects of a single problem, the West’s dependence on oil.”
The founder of the Renewable Energy Institute (REI) was first involved in Net Zero Energy buildings and Solar Trigeneration sm energy system in 2001 - 2002. This started with family-owned real estate developments in Northern and Southern California. This interest was accelerated when REI's founder was introduced to the President of a solar company in Los Angeles and their client, the Audubon Nature Center at Deb's Park (Los Angeles) that was planning to build a new 5,000 sf office and conference center. Except, the new building for the Audubon Nature Center was about 1/2 mile from the end of the power lines and a very costly extension of the power lines to their new facility forced them to consider a solar solution. When the Audubon Nature Center's new 5,000 sf office and conference center was completed in 2003, the facility not only featured the Solar Trigeneration sm energy system - they were awarded one of the first Platinum LEED Awards by the USGBC - and the powerlines were still 1/2 mile away! To this day, 100% of the power and energy for the Audubon Nature Center's building is supplied by the Solar Trigeneration sm energy system - whether at 12 noon, or 12 midnite. (The Audubon's facility also includes a battery energy storage system for back-up power generated by the Rooftop PV panels as well as a thermal energy storage system that stores the excess hot water generated by the evacuated tube collectors).
These early projects led to more client inquiries and engagements with real estate developers, architects and building owners in Southern California, Louisiana and Texas and the advent of a growing Net Zero Energy industry along with Solar Cogeneration sm & Solar Trigeneration sm energy systems. This culminated in a family-owned 200 (Net Zero Energy) home real estate development in Desert Hot Springs which has been approved but not yet constructed.
During this time, the REI's Founder became a volunteer and Advisor to the University of Texas' Solar Decathlon Competition. He coordinated the donation of the same solar thermal system used at the Audubon Nature Center's facility in Los Angeles, for UT's entry in the 2002 Solar Decathlon Competition in Washington, D.C. UT's entry in the Solar Decathlon Competition placed 1st in the domestic hot water competition that year (2002) and 4th overall, out of 20 universities that had entered.
In 2006, after Hurricane Kattrina devastated New Orleans, the REI was formed and several of the REI's board members and a Professor from the University of Texas School of Architecture formed a design team to enter the Brad Pitt/Global Green Rebuild New Orleans Competition. Our entry also focused on sustainable building solutions and materials as well as the Net Zero Energy concepts, incorporating once again, a Solar Trigeneration sm energy system.
Today, the REI "Flagship" has chartered the Renewable Energy Institute in Florida, with discussions to open REI state chapters in Arizona, California, Hawaii, Minnesota and Oregon.
The REI supports greater use of Net Zero Energy systems by architects, builders, homeowners and owners of commercial buildings. This includes "upgrading" homes and commercial buildings to Net Zero Energy. The REI provides Net Zero Energy; advertising, business development, conferences, e-commerce, education, marketing, online marketing, public relations, renewable energy, sales and strategic marketing solutions for architects, builders, cities, colleges, HVAC contractors, Net Zero Energy developers, real estate developers and universities.
We deliver solutions:
That produce results:
Greater market share
Increased shareholder value
Zero Energy Buildings Are Next Frontier
Zero Energy Market to Become $1.3 Trillion/year Industry by 2035
Net Zero Energy Buildings Are Coming - What About The Buildings Already Standing?
"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy" SM
Energy Plan sm
million new jobs
Net Zero Energy = Free Power and Energy!
Biomethane = Fuel Savings of > $2.00/gallon
American Energy Independence
Ends the worst economic depression of all time
NO FOREIGN OIL!
Support Renewable Energy
American Energy Plan!
We support the Renewable Energy Institute by donating a portion of our profits to the
Renewable Energy Institute
in their efforts to reduce fossil fuel use by transitioning to Renewable
Energy Technologies and reducing/eliminating Carbon
Dioxide Emissions and Greenhouse
The Renewable Energy Institute is "Changing The Way The World Makes and Uses Energy" SM by providing research & development, funding and resources that reduce the cost of Renewable Energy Technologies and making a faster transition to Carbon Free Energy, Clean Power Generation, & Pollution Free Power."
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